Rankings By College: How Much Of Your Salary Will Go Toward Paying Off Student Loans?
Growella researched college tuitions, the likelihood of students receiving scholarship and grant money, and the typical graduate job and salary to determine the true value of a college education, school-by-school. This edition looks at Big 10 colleges.
What Does It Cost To Attend College?
The cost of attending a 4-year college ranges between $35,000 and $120,000, accounting for the raw costs of tuition, housing, and college textbooks.
Public schools, such as UCLA and the University of Arizona, tend toward the lower end of this range. Private schools, such as Brigham Young University and New York University lean toward the upper end.
It makes sense that public universities are less expensive to attend than comparable private ones; the costs of running public universities are subsidized by state governments using tax dollars.
Whatever’s not covered by public money is covered by tuition. Students pay for the rest.
By contrast, individual donors and corporations fund the nation’s private universities.
Contributions from alumni, corporations, and others offset the costs of operating a private college’s buildings, of paying for its faculty, and of offering student services. Tuition fees make up the difference, which can be large depending on the school.
Private schools sometimes cost three times as much to attend than a public school.
There are tax-advantaged college savings programs that can make paying for college more affordable but, if you’re among the forty-four million students who use loans to pay for school, you could be paying for your education into your 40s.
This is because it takes 21 years for a four-year college student to repay student loan debt, on average. Lifetime interest costs paid sometimes reach half of the original amount borrowed.
The payments you make on your student loans could hit your budget hard.
But, as borrowers learn, the amount of your budget eaten up by your loans is based on a lot more than “what your school costs” or “how much your borrow for college.”
Where you go to college affects your student loans.
How Student Loans Payments Are Calculated
First, let’s refresh how student loans work.
As a student, you borrow some amount of money on one of five student loan programs; you make monthly payments on that amount either during school or after graduation; and then, after some number of years, those loans are paid off in full.
Three factors contribute to the size of your monthly student loan payment:
- The size of your student loans
- Your student loan interest rate
- In years, the length of your loan
The formula is the same no matter where you go to school.
Borrow $50,000 to attend this school and your payments will be the same as if you borrowed $50,000 to attend that school.
Your interest rate may change based on which of the five programs you use; and, after graduation, you can apply to refinance your student loans for a lower interest rate or lower payment, but the math works the same — you make monthly payments until you’ve paid your loan off.
The average student loan repayment takes 21 years. At some schools, though, you can finish far sooner.
Which Colleges Are Rated “Best Value”
Your choice of college makes a difference in how you’ll repay your student loans. Some schools keep it easy to repay your loans quickly, while others make it more of a challenge.
How long it will take to repay your loans start with your school’s tuition costs. But, that’s your starting point only.
Before selecting a college to attend, you’ll want to know two other things besides its tuition:
- How much financial aid the school gives to its students
- The starting salary of a typical graduate of the school
These two points matter because student loans payments will represent your biggest post-graduation expense. They could influence your household budget for the next two decades or more; and, they’ll absolutely affect how much home you can afford.
Ideally, you’ll seek a school that offers generous aid packages to students; and, that graduate a large number of students with high-paying jobs.
Schools that do both are “The Best Values In U.S. Colleges”.
1. How much financial aid will the college typically give?
Colleges make their tuition rates public. They’re posted online and visible to anyone who wants to research how much it costs to go to college.
Tuition rates, though, don’t answer the question: “What does it cost to go to college?”
The cost of a college education starts with tuition rates, but then you start subtracting the value of scholarships; of grants; of financial assistance and free housing; and, other bonuses that colleges sometimes give.
The true cost of a college is not its published “sticker price.”
A college’s true cost is its (Cost of Tuition) + (Cost of Room + Board) + (Cost of Textbooks) minus (Available Aid To Students).
Universities with high tuition costs that give scholarships and grants freely are often better “deals” than schools with low tuition costs that are stingy with their student aid.
Look beyond published tuition costs to find good value.
2. How much money will you earn as a college graduate?
When you interview for your first job, your major, your grades, and your experience will help you get a foot in the door. Your college plays a part, too, though.
Some colleges invest in their Career Services center and work hard to help students earn the right job with the right employer. These schools boast high placement rates for graduates — many of whom earn a great income.
Your income matters to your student loans because the more money that you earn, the smaller the percentage of your paycheck that’ll go toward your loans.
Spending less on your student loans each month leaves more money left over for things like going on vacation, putting money into retirement, and buying a new car.
Until you apply for jobs as a Junior or Senior in school, you can’t know how much you’ll earn at that first job. However, when you go to a school that invests in its students and their future, you give yourself an advantage over your peers.
Respect the power of your first job and its income potential. A big first-job income lessens the impact of student loan payments on your budget.
The Colleges Where Graduates Repay Their Student Loans Fastest
To find whether a college is a good value for you, consider how much of your salary after graduation will go toward paying off your student loans.
Every dollar spent paying off student loans is dollar not used for something else.
Giving a large percentage of your paycheck to student loan lenders leaves less room in your budget for going out, for going on vacation, and for buying the stuff you want such as food, clothing, and Netflix.
Paying a lot to your loans also leaves less money for longer-term goals including saving for retirement, purchasing a home, and buying life insurance to protect the people important to you.
We looked at the schools in the Big 10 Conference to see how much student loans cut the paychecks of each school’s graduates. Iowa came out tops. Penn State fared less well.
The Growella “Pay Off Student Loans” Methodology
To determine what percentage of a college graduate’s income goes toward student loans each month, Growella sourced tuition rates, historical aid packages, and median salaries for each of the study’s schools.
None of our research was subjective.
It’s why this study isn’t titled “The Best U.S. Colleges For Your Money” or something similar. The word “best” implies opinion. Our results are unbiased.
This study is based on data and original research.
How we found the true tuition rates for colleges
We calculated average tuition rates using in-state and out-of-state rates as published on each school’s website, multiplied by a weighting factor that considered the percentage of students that attend each school with an in-state address as compared to out-of-state.
For schools at which tuition rates are the same for students residing in all 50 states and Washington, D.C., we did not apply the weighting adjustment.
To calculate historical aid packages, we referenced each school’s financial assistance webpage and cross-referenced it against the number of students attending the school, overall. This ratio yielded the percentage of students at the school who receive aid.
Next, we added the dollar amount of scholarships awarded to students to the dollar amount in grants awarded to students, both in the most recently reported year.
Scholarships and grants require no repayment, so this amount was divided by the number of students receiving aid at a particular college to find the average tuition reduction per student.
We then subtracted this figure from the average tuition rate to find the average 4-year tuition per student.
How we calculated the expected student loan payment
To find the expected student loan payment for a given college or university, we started with the school’s average 4-year tuition costs, the method for which can be found above.
We assumed that students would borrow their full tuition costs over four years, making no payment from their own money, including assets saved in 529 savings plan or any other similar vehicle.
Next, we assumed a student loan interest rate of five percent and a payment term of 120 months.
The five percent interest rate is neither the lowest student loan interest rate available nor the highest. Rates range from near three percent to near seven percent. There is no “average student loan interest rate” for all borrowers nationwide, so we chose a fair rate that reflects the current market without bias.
Note that many undergraduate students use Direct Subsidized Loans and Direct Unsubsidized Loans to finance their college education. Collectively, these loans are known as Stafford Loans, and their interest rate is fixed by the government.
That rate is between four and five percent, currently.
How we calculated the expected income for college graduates
To find the expected income for a college graduate, we referenced data from the U.S. Department of Education which lists the median income for a 4-year Bachelor’s Degree graduate who received student aid, ten years post-graduation.
Data is self-reported by student aid recipients and does not account for graduates who opt-out of data collection and participation.
The data from the U.S. Department of Education reaches similar conclusions to data from the private sector, including services such as Payscale. We opted for government-backed data to stay consistent with other studies on this site.
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Growella conducted its “The Best U.S. Colleges For Students Who Take Loans” research to help high school students and prospective college transfer students to make better choices with their money, and their student loans options.
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